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Observation of chan ge in surface water s is difficult to detect since there is an intensive. However, around South Georgia observations exist. They reveal si gnificant. Sub- Antarctic Mode Wat er is formed b y winter cooling and c onvection just north of the. Sub-A ntarctic Front McCartney, , When it is subducted it becomes Antarctic.

Intermediate Water Hanawa and Talle y, This wat er mas s is of particular interest due. Significant warming Won g,. Wong, ; Curry et al, ; Bindoff et al. To underst and the chan ges , the formation processes e. In a circumpolar view t he ACC band has warm ed in recent decades Figure 4.

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The changes are consistent. Some climate models sugg est that the ACC. A significant part of the c hanges. Hughes et al. The poleward shift and intensification of winds over the Southern Ocean has been attributed. In addition to driving changes in the A CC, the wind. Speich et al. Mode Water and Antar ctic Intermediate W ater is distribut ed between the ocean bas ins. Ridgway and Dunn, In the area of the formation of Antarctic Inter mediate Water. Surp risingl y the changes are rather. Water as evidenced by water mass prope rties , in particular the c oncentration of the.

It is injected i nto the ocean at the sur face and indicates , b y. Knowledge of the circulation in the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean has increas ed. Rep eat hydrographi c sections Figure 4. The mean. A multi - year time series der ived from XBT sections and altimetry shows signi ficant.

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High resolution hydrographic sections reveal that the ACC fronts consist of. Eddy fluxes estimated from current meter. Phillips and Rintoul, A cyclonic gyre lies between the ACC and the Antarctic. Kerguelen Plateau McC a rtney and Donohue, ACC show an increase o f potential temperatur e of the water masses on the souhward flank of. On surfaces of constant densities freshing.

The major fronts r epresenting ACC branch es are displayed as. Front and 1. The ACC belt in the Australian sector has warmed in recent decades, as found. The southward shift of the ACC fronts has caused warming. Australia between and Sokolov and Rintoul, ; Morrow et al. However, there is no observational evidence of the increase in ACC transport also predicted.

Recent studies suggest the ACC transport is insensitive. Changes have been obs erved in several w ater masses in t he Australian sector between. Waters north of the ACC have cooled an d. South of the ACC, waters have warmed and become higher in salinity. The changes south of the ACC are consistent with a. The pattern of water mass change observed in the. Whitworth detected a shift toward fresher AABW.

More recent studies have documented. Aoki et al. By using repeat observations from. Rintoul showed that the deep po tential. The abyssal la yers of the Australian Antarctic Basin are s upplied by the two primary. Changes in precipitation, sea ice formation and melt, ocean circulation patterns,. Ox ygen isotope measurem ents in the Ross Sea indicate that an. The mos t likely source of the. While most of the ice sheet in East Antar ctica appears to be gaining mass, glaciers. Therefore increased supply of glacial. F igure 4. The Aust ralian Antarctic Basi n is supplied by two. Lower Chan ges in the.

From Rintoul The southeast Paci fic Ocean 70 o W — o W deserves enhanced scienti fic interest becaus e. Since The changes can be rela ted to atmospheric variability including the Antarctic. Different hydrographi c conditions ha ve a severe impact on marine species e. Connected via the westward flowing, and in this part, weak coas tal current, chan ges in. Th e southernmost position of the ACC souther n. This ocean heat could fuel melting of up to tens of metre s p er year at deep ice.

A linear relations hip between melt ra tes beneath Antar ctic ice shelves and ocean. Th e change of ice mel t rate to a chan ge in ocean. I n a simple box model Olbers and. Hellmer confirm this rate to be consiste nt with the inv olved physical pro cesses and. Numerical modeling of ice - ocean int eraction beneath Pi ne Island. Glacier Payne et al. Such warming has not been.

T emperature variabil ity correlated with. Ice Sheet. Upper Sout hern Ocean temperatur es increased since t he 's Gille , ;. Walker et al. The circulation in the Ross Sea is dominated by a wind - driven cyclonic gyre Treshnikov,. Gouretski, The baroclinic. The eastern. From property maps. Reid included the extension up to the Antarctic Peninsula. Antipov et al. Whitworth et al. Summer salinity profiles spanning about 20 years in High Salinity. Atmospheric forcing, sea ice production,. Hellmer and Jacobs. Fringing ice shel ves and glaciers draini ng the West Antarct ic Ice Sheet in light blue.

Nitsche et al. Palmer NBP , the. Attempts to link observed HSSW chang es to multiyear variability in regional sea ice. The data base. In addition, most measurements were in or near an HSSW eddy, another potential. Nonetheless, the deep HSSW trend in that area has closely tracked. Jacobs and Giulivi, ; Smethie and Jacobs, Record low salinities at the site in February le d to analyses that more strongly. Seas Jacobs et al.

Assmann and Timmermann suc cessfully modeled averaged. Their periodic signal upwelled in the Amundsen Sea , reduced brine. Interannual salinity variability is high, but the overall trend has been. Pine Island Bay. Potential temperature of the upper 1, m along a ba nd between o W. Due to the ice conditions.

The sea floor depth was extracted from. Right figure depicts the temper ature field in front of. Pine Island Glacier with its draft shaded in gray. This short line is along the line of pink dots. The 1 o C isotherm on the continental shelf and slope. The solid black area indicates the sea. The record of summer she lf water thermohaline pr operties has recentl y been extended. The 50 year salinity trend continues to be near - 0. Sea and upst ream eastward in the Ant arctic Coastal Current. The salinity decline appe ars to. Over regional areas the.

Horizontal lines depict the salinity ranges at six. Tfrs is the surface fr eezing reference tem perature. The Weddell Sea host s a subpolar gyre e. Treshnikov, , the Weddell Gyre Figure. Southern Hemisphere, affecting and involving ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere and a major. In respect to climate change, the most relevant prope rty is the change in the intensity of. However, since these transport di fferences are relati ve small in comparis on to.

The cyclonic Weddell Gyre is bounded to the west by the Antarctic Peninsula, to the. E Gouretski and Danilov, The flow associated with the Antarctic Slope Front, a. The Weddell Gyre is prima rily driven by the cyclonic. The volume transport is still an ongoing topic of research, partly because it is dominated by. Integrating the. For a section across the Wedde ll Gyre from. At the Greenwich. Cu rrent meter arra ys subsequently yielded. The larger values at the Greenwich meridian ma y be due to.

Thompson and Heywood, , and it is suggested that referencing the geostrophic shear. WSBW is formed on the Antarctic continental shelves where they are wide. In the. Weddell Sea, the Fi lchner - Ronne Ice shelf is one such sou rce region e.

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Foldvik et al. Th e water on the Antarcti c continental shelve s is typically freshe r than. This freshening is a necessary precursor to the bottom water formation process, which. The WSBW de scends the contine ntal slope and. The descent of the WSBW. It can only escape b y. WSDW, which is sufficiently shallow to flow out through the passages in the topogr aphy. Estimates of. An inflow of water of WSDW properties from the east has been. Princess Elizabeth Trough Heywood et al. Garabato et al. This can escape through gaps in the ridges to the north and east of the.

Weddell Sea, and subsequ ently invades all oce an basins. Measurements of wat er mass transports ex ist in r elation to climate time scales only as. Ther efore, one has. Carefully validated models play a significant role here. E ven. Therefore it is still not possible to unambiguously distinguish.

In spite of the fact that the variability. Considering its remote and inhospitable location, the Weddell Sea was well observed. These sections indicate a number of decadal - scale changes in water mass. The WDW warmed by some 0. Fahrbach et al. This was. A quasi - meridional sectio n across the Weddel l Gyre occupied in. There has been debate as to whether. During the s a persistent gap in the sea ice, the Weddell Polynya, occurred for.

The ocean lost a great deal of heat to the atmosphere during t hese events.

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After this one event the large polynya did not show up a gain, but weak ice. In a rece nt study , Gordon et. Weddell Sea Bottom Water is observed on the western continental slope and within the. Whereas the bottom water was warming and getting. It is a matter of debate if such. Because much of the Weddell Sea is cover ed with sea ice for much of t he year, there is.

This was a. Measurement s beneath the sea ice in t he Weddell Sea. The importance of small - scale processes in surface, bottom and lateral boundary layers is. In ice - covered oceans the surface boundary layer is of par ticular interest. McPhee, since it controls the heat and momentum exchange between ice and ocean. These exchanges affe ct ice growth, melt and m otion as well as the heat budg et of the ocean.

Appropriate quantification of such processes is a. For a long time small - scale processes related to ocean turbulenc e in the interior were. This resulted from. Normally a simple ener gy cascade providing turbulent energy from. H owever, improved. There, internal waves, not only generated at the continental. The understanding of spatially and timely. It has been estimated e. Current conceptual and numerical models of the. Southern Ocean overturning circulation see Rintoul et al. Physical processes occurring on length scales on which earth rotation is of similar.

To represent ocean properties. Ho wever this is. For example , formation of t he AA BW filling the deepest layers of much of the g lobal. Hellmer, The properties of. Antarctic shelf waters are modi fied further by turbulent mixing associated with the. Egbert and Ray, , including the vicinity of the ice shelf front Makinson et al.

A variety of small - scale processes underlie s the. Robertson et al. The importance of these processes is accentuated by the proximity of the Antarctic. In addition to their role in moulding the. Gordon et al. On descending the c ontinental. Antarctic Slope Front , which have been reported to generat e cyclonic eddies effecting a net. In subsequent. He ywood et al. A large fraction of this modification. While theoretical cons iderations Ma rshall and Naveira Garabato, a nd altimetric. These waves induce intense turbulent mixing Figure 4.

It thus appears. This proposition is consistent with the concurrent intensification of eddy - driven upwelling. In this view , eddy dampening - which is required to sustain a vigorous meridional circulation. Although the patchy indirect evidence available to. Nonetheless, it. Th e key point emergin g is that relativel y small scale processes in the Southern Ocean. This is a highly signi fican t conclusion.

Wunsch and Ferrari for a disc ussion. As an indica tor of. Scotia Sea anticlockw ise green dots on the bot tom graph. Density surfac es separating water. Front and its southern boundary SB are marked in the upper axis. Station positions are. Reproduced from Naveira Garabato et. Obs ervations are still not as frequent and spatially well distributed as needed to establish a. To fill thi s gap, the dynamics are evaluated using results.

However, the models themselves have shortcomings, so their results have to be. I ndeed, some. A number of modelling studies, including both general circulation models GCM and. These studies examined the controls on its transport. The GCM. Excluding the geographical areas covered b y these two. A focus of most modelling studies has been to identify the forces th at constitute the.

Using the output from various OGCMs, efforts have been made to identify the. Given the unbounded nature of the current, it is perhaps not surprising that. The amount of bottom stress is related to the representation in models of the bottom. Eddies that result from hydrodynamic insta bility of the mean flow of the ACC also play. At high latitudes the length scale at which oceani c flows are.

Indeed the y may be smaller than the t ypical. Most modelling studies have been carried out at a relatively coarse. Some others, of higher. Maltrud and McClean, In some regions of the. ACC , eddies cause an upgradient transfer of kinetic energy into the mean flow, while for the. Because coarse-. Under some scenarios of modelled climate change, there are significant cha nges in the. The response of the ACC to a change in the wind field occurs. The response is. This is an important finding in the context of climate change, as it. The ability of the ACC to respond quickly to the wind may explain the.

An analysis of an OGCM in which. Although numerical modelling of the ACC and adjacent polar gyres sheds some l ig ht. First, the transport volume of the ACC remains poorly c onstrained. Ivchenko et al. Analyzing the ACC transport in 18 coupled atmosphere - ocean.

Sv, the coupled models produced a spread ranging from a low of - 6 Sv to a high of Sv. This shortcoming reflects the lack of high resolution in many. Secondly it is currently difficult to model the interaction of. To properly tackle this. This section considers the variability and trend i n Antarctic sea ice area and extent over the.

This time splits into two very distinct periods. Since the s microwave. Before that time, data wer e reliant on. Detailed maps of the distribution of the sea ice cover at a good temporal resolution could not. Observations of the sea ice. Herman During the whaling period, the ships which were not ice breakers were. The ice edge as defined using satellite pass ive microwave data i s. The whaling data wer e. A more direct comparison of the sa tellite monthly climatology for the period to.

Assuming that the earlier ship. These results. Interpretation of these results, however, has to be done in t he context of the. The standard deviation of the ice edge along different longitudes. M a cKintosh di gital data was. It shows a decrease of 0. Although we lack the sea ice data to confirm the early decrease, the m odel is.

Although meant primarily for rainfall studies it found. While the da ta from this instrument are not us ed in the time series analy sis.

The data led to the discovery of the existen ce of the large Weddell polynya about the. Qualit ative analysis can be don e: The following discussion concentrates on the period from when the SMMR data. The large - scale seas onal variation of th e sea ice cover in the Southern Hemis phere is. AMSR - E ice concentration data are gridded at The maps were derived b y taking the avera ge of all data available for each. The monthly. The series of images starts in January, usually the.

The minimum extent usually. There are two primary locations where ice survives in. The extents of the perennial i ce in these two regions are compar able, but vary. The period of most rapid growth. Ice cover deca ys rapidly between Novem ber and January. The shape o f the ice cover duri ng ice maxim a September is almos t symmetrical. Among the most distinctive features in the inner zone of the ice cov er are the reduced. These are regions where short ter m or transient. Because they normally appear. The features are m ost evident in the.

Such regions hav e also been the scene o f hi gh productivity. Smith and Comiso, reflecting the possible influence of s ea ice, as has been su ggested. The parameters that hav e been used for quantifying the variability and trends in the sea. Ice extent is de fined as the integrated sum of the area of all the pixel.

Time series plots of monthly values of the ice. Over the 28 - year. The annual maxima and minima. In the summer, the large fluctuation may be ca used by. For example, more ice could be advected furth er north. The distributions of ice extents. During the yea rs when the mont hly ice extent and ar ea in the winter w ere most. Thus the decay. Conversely, the growth patterns are also not significantly influenced by the extent of. This counter - intuitive phenomenon is more apparent on a.

For example, in the Weddell Sea, anomalously extensive ice cover in winter. To assess interannu al changes and trends in the sea ice extent and ice area, monthl y. The monthly anomalies. The monthly climatologies wer e generated b y taking the average of al l. The sea ice extent shows a positive trend of 0. This is. The trend in ice area is slightly more positive at 1. The errors. Unknown biases that may be associated with different calibration and. Assuming that the. This is consistent with observe d coo ling in parts of the.

Antarctic during the period Comiso, ; Kwok and Comiso, Trend analysis of the i ce extent in different Ant arctic sectors as def ined in Zwally et. The t rend is least pos itive in the Western Paci fic and. The most positive is the Ro ss Sea sector at 4. The trend in.

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Since these two sectors are adjacent to one another, the. This pattern of change has been linked to the recent deepening of the Amundsen. Sea Low as a result, primarily, of the loss of stratospheric ozone Turner et al. Also, the variability of ice in the Ross Sea region is associated with the influence of. T he positive trend in the Ross Sea, which is the site of a major coastal polynya, suggests. Yearly maximum and minimum ice ext ent and ice area w ere estimated for each year.

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Their original takes on popular songs made this Jazzy cover band very entertaining to listen to. I would either hear a melody or lyrics to a song I recognized and that would catch my attention. By the end of their set, they had proved themselves to be one of if not the best local band featured at Twilight this year.

Though they were not playing original songs, their original takes and overall connection and synchronization as a band made them very successful when it came to entertaining the crowd. The Roots played next, one by one the band showcased all it was capable of. A breathtaking bass solo by Mark Kelley.

Jeremy Ellis played a beat box solo that knocked my socks off. My socks were completely off for the remainder of the show.

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Black Thought spat some killer bars and Tuba Goulding Jr. This band is the epitome of soul. They really got the crowd moving, one man did two back flips. I saw what looked like me, looking sideways at myself. I was there looking at me and we decided to look away and gaze over at yours truly, I am still stuck like this now. The Roots took us back to before we were born. The Roots really brought us down to earth, and then into it. The show they put on was a truly wonderful experience. Finality is a strange event. An ending. That the sun hates music and has some really nasty intentions when harping on concert goers?

The beginning of the night started per usual, albeit much less crowded and anxious for the opening band to begin. The amount of people differed from previous shows, but perhaps that was only because one of the acts was not able to make it, leaving open a space to be filled. Local heroes of the funk scene in Salt Lake City, the band absolutely deserved the spotlight of opening for the main act. The crowd went wild for the fast songs and listened with intent to the slower ones. Pioneer Park was once again packed. Filled to the fences of fans and fun. With so much arbitrary shoving, I was forced to fling the chips into the crowd along with beachballs and hats and other items lacking enough importance to keep held.

Highlights include a solo by sampler Stro Elliot moving his fingers with rapid and deft precision across his board. There was never a lack of intense joy throughout the entire set. And like that Twilight was over. It was a fine night. I became lost once again in a place familiar and strange. Some gossip suggests this would be the last Twilight Concert Series. I suppose its a possibility.

But uncertainty can also be a very beautiful thing. Farewell and good night. You know how as a tree gets taller the roots get deeper? Take a slip of paper and write down five words that describe what it feels like to float and then take two of these and call me in the morning. The Twilight Concert series is 30 years in the making; the only time I ever spent 30 years doing something, I was holding up two cups to the sky and waiting for it to rain. The opening act was Talia Keys and The Love. When Talia sang she used such full power and emotion. So how?

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Take a look in the mirror and wonder what if. Onto the stage next came The Handsome Family , the married couple plays somber bass, heavy roots rock. In between the songs, they made some hilariously irreverent jokes. The Handsome Family vanished and Andrew Bird appeared on the stage. Sans accompaniment, he played the violin and whistled a fine tune. At this point, his band appeared on stage alongside him. Blinded by light, I began to be taken on a folk-pop journey through the cosmo s of my mind.

A man in straps told me that I needed to dance. He whisked his partner away in one sweep. Before I knew it, I was waltzing on the dirt as it changed into a barnyard ballroom with a chandelier made of quartz. Andrew began to shred on the violin sending shivers down my spine. I spun the night away and unraveled myself into the crowd.

Andrew Bird spoke volumes through his lyrics and sang with real passion. Overall a very good show. Although this is true of every Twilight Concert, there have been none like this. Her lyrics often depicted the innocence we all shared growing up, but this innocence is being described by such a powerful and well-structured group. The irony of being told to always strive for liberation and freedom by a group who obviously slaves over the perfection of their craft only added to the incredible music being played.

Although when they sang together it was very apparent why they were there. The two sang slow and strong with the aid of a bass, a guitar and a little harmonica here and there creating this folky sound, unique to just the two. For never hearing of the group prior, I was pleasantly surprised of the music they played.

Those who were shopping put down their items, those talking with friends and family quieted, and those using the convenience of the oh-so lovely Honey Buckets quickly ran out in haste. The diversity of music being played by one band was almost overwhelming. This was hands down the best Twilight performance I have attended this year. Such diversity only begs the question, is there anything they cannot do? Five shows into the Twilight series and it has begun to feel like the ultimate tentpoles of summer. Good or less than great, each show has brought a capstone to a hot, often aimless summer week since the end of July.

So this night, feeling the slow burn finishing towards an ending, I entered in through the familiar gates, passing off a more than familiar greeting to the attendants and stepped into Twilight number six. As a local band, I had seen their moniker around here and there but had never the opportunity to see the band live. After the first set, I sat calmly eating pizza within the sponsor area once again whilst unbeknownst to myself, someone sent me photos of myself eating, replying on my phone, watching some birds.

Country is an often overlooked genre unless it delves into the classic sense of real roots country, which is what the band did. Their set was short and ultimately sweet. His band played wonderfully some classic alt-rock sounding songs and his voice bellowed out across the night sky with restrained passion. I was sure the likenening to Rufus Wainwright has been made to Mr. Bird, but his voice crept along the same lines. I was unfortunate to not stay for the entire set, but I weaved through the crowd, larger than anticipated towards the outside. I felt mixtures of anticipation for the last show in a week, I felt penultimate to the extreme.

However, this concert turned out to be one of my favorite Twilight experiences so far. The set was pretty simple; vocals and an acoustic guitar or keyboard, but her voice was extremely relaxing and beautiful. All of the acts had a maximum of 2 people on stage, and the songs seemed to be more focused lyrically compared to instrumentally. We both immediately fell in love with her voice. It was heartfelt, vulnerable, and powerful all at the same time.

They applauded and begged her to keep going regardless of any mishaps because she sounded beautiful either way. And suddenly, it was another Thursday night speeding across the city to one of the most unexpected Twilight concerts.